Introduction

Civil litigation follows a number of procedural steps in order to arrive at the final judgment. Civil suits are mostly related to monetary transactions or property disputes and are mostly concerned with the claim for damages or compensation for losses.  

A civil suit is one that alleges violations of civil law by one or more persons. Civil litigation comes up when one person wrongs another person. Both the persons here are referred to as the parties or litigants. Civil litigation pertains to settling disputes that are not criminal in nature. Civil litigation is governed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

Stages in Civil Litigation

1. Filing of Plaint
2. Issuing of Summons
3. The appearance of the Parties to the Dispute
4. Interlocutory Proceedings
5. Written Statement
6. Examination
7. Framing of the Issues Involved
8. Documents Required
9. Inspection and Discovery of the Documents
10. Producing the Required Documents

Cross-Examination of the Witnesses

The most important stage in litigation is the examination of the witnesses. In the first hearing of the suit, the court asks the parties if either of them agrees or denies the allegations made by the opposition. Usually, the plaintiff gets the first chance to begin, unless the defendant proves otherwise. The plaintiff has to submit the pieces of evidence, and the defendant’s advocate gets to cross-examine the plaintiff and witnesses who represent the plaintiff’s side. The plaintiff’s advocate also gets the chance to cross-examine the defendant’s side of the witness. Once the process of examination and cross-examination has been completed, the next stage in civil litigation is to take the arguments. The parties to the dispute are asked to present their arguments, the summary of the case, and the list of evidence to substantiate their arguments.